Global change

The growth rate of greenhouse gas concentrations was less than the previous year, while global temperature and the ozone hole increased. Antarctic sea ice extent was the lowest on record.

Atmospheric CO2 concentration increased by 2.1 ppm – 11% slower than the previous year and 5% slower than the average 2000–2021 growth rate. The reduced rate was partly due to slowly falling global emissions and La Niña conditions in 2022. The average CO2 concentration reached 419 ppm, a 32% increase from 1960.

Global average air temperature in 2021 was 0.02 °C higher than the previous year and 0.86 °C above the 20th-century average. 2022 was the sixth warmest year on record. The last nine years (2014– 2022) all rank as the nine warmest on record.

The maximum ozone hole extent increased by 7% from the previous year. It was 8% larger than the 2000–2021 average but remained 11% below the maximum extent observed in 2000.

Sea ice extent was similar to the previous year
in the Arctic but around Antarctica it was the lowest on record. Ice extent on both hemispheres combined was 3.7% less than the previous year, the third lowest on record and 5.3% lower than the 2000–2021 average.