Soil moisture and soil surface condition improved across most of Australia.

National average moisture availability in the top 6 m of soil increased by 22 mm to reach values not seen since 2011. Values were 5% more than the previous year and 13% above the 2000–2021 average. Soil moisture increased or remained stable nearly everywhere, with the greatest increases along the central east coast and some inland regions in NSW and Queensland. Declines in average soil water availability occurred in the northern part of NT and the southern and western regions of WA. Soil moisture fell to the lowest level since before 2000 in western Tasmania. Below-average conditions also occurred in Arnhem Land and the Margaret River region in WA.





National average soil protection by vegetation and leaf litter improved for the fourth year in a row and was the best since 2017. Soil exposure was 4% less than the previous year and 2% less than the 2000–2021 average. The best conditions since before 2000 were measured in parts of southeast and southwestern Australia. Soil surface conditions fell well below the 2000–2021 average in the WA Goldfields region.